Check copyright status Cite this Title [Melbourne telephone directory : yellow pages]. Former Title Telecom Australia. Subjects Melbourne Vic. Victoria -- Telephone directories. Notes Annual.
Cover title. View online Borrow Buy. Set up My libraries How do I set up "My libraries"? None of your libraries hold this item. Tags What are tags? Add a tag. Public Private login e. Add a tag Cancel Be the first to add a tag for this edition. Directories could no longer be used as a privileged branding vehicle for the dominant carrier, and policy discussions ensued about how to deliver essential public and emergency information, while ensuring competition was possible.
Argument ensued as to whether the databases that now underlay directories were private goods, and thus fully open to competition, or whether they were actually public goods. Heated discussion ensued about the trade-offs among the different considerations of economic efficiency, stimulating competition, reasonable return to the carrier, and safeguard of appropriate intellectual property rights Richards.
Before its final decommissioning in July , the French Minitel service was in the vanguard of public innovation allowing users to search data from directories Barr. By the end of the s, ideas and prototypes for directories were fast emerging to deal with a range of associated issues posed for the future of directories by burgeoning email and Internet services, in the face of which listing people, organizations, and addresses was not as straightforward as it had become with telephone directories Patel and Ryan.
At the turn of the century, then, the telephone directory was at a crossroads. The telephone directory had itself become part of the bundle of essential telecommunications services that governments were prepared to intervene to ensure continued—as a right of citizens. This term for the telephone directory raises the interesting question of in what way a list may become a book.
However, a much more significant question, as I suggested at the outset, is when does this genre of the list become a form of media. Manovich draws our attention to the dynamics driven by. Manovich The database becomes the center of the creative process in the computer age […] It is not surprising, then, that databases occupy a significant, if not the largest, territory of the new media landscape.
It is also about creating new kinds of media characteristics, functions, and possibilities for the telephone directory—parlaying the older form into the kind of agile, ductile, and extensible list media adequate to contemporary conditions. For telephone directories, as we shall see the possibilities and politics of the database as the foundation of a new, second stage of media society prove especially challenging.
As telephone directories transmuted into databases, furious battles broke out over the rights to these lists and the information they contained. Customarily, the list of telephone subscribers containing names, numbers, and often addresses were collected in a directory, published as a book, and widely distributed. Can this information be used by others for their own commercial purposes?
Or is the telephone directory tantamount to proprietary information, owned and controlled by the telephone company that has collected it? A landmark legal case in the US relating to telephone directories involved a publishing company, Feist Publications. Feist specialised in area-wide telephone directories, covering a number of contiguous calling areas——a much larger geographical range than directories offered by the phone companies. In order to compile its directory, Feist approached each of 11 telephone companies in the North-West Kansas area, requesting the right to licence their directory information.
One company, Rural Telephone Service declined to grant this right, so Feist copied and edited information from their directory, hiring staff to verify relevant listings and seek additional information Feist v Rural Telephone. Feist and the relevant Court of Appeals upheld the judgment. However, the Supreme Court reversed this decision, on the basis that originality, the sine qua non of copyright, was not demonstrated:. In preparing its white pages, Rural simply takes the data provided by its subscribers and lists it alphabetically by surname. The end product is a garden-variety white pages directory, devoid of even the slightest trace of creativity.
The Court noted that there may certainly be creativity and originality in a compilation, that sustains a claim of ownership for copyright. What they copied, the Court determined, was the White Pages material, which fell short of originality:. Rural's selection of listings could not be more obvious: It publishes the most basic information—name, town, and telephone number—about each person who applies to it for telephone service. The judgment in Feist vs Rural Publications occurred at a time when competition in telephone directories was intensifying, especially because of the technologies that allowed copying and compilation of data to be achieved much more easily.
As well as publishers wishing to compete in the telephone directories market, new products and services emerged that made innovative use of listings. One such service was the reverse telephone directory service, developed during the s. Typically the provider used cheap typing services available in low-wage countries offshore to copy information from available telephone directories and compile a list. The reverse directory raised privacy concerns, and so was subject to regulation in many jurisdictions.
Another new technology that allowed gathering of telephone numbers and identification of related subscriber names and address as was caller identification caller ID; also known as calling number display Seecof. In the ensuing debates it was evident that citizens strongly felt attached to their telephone number, as a crucial piece of personal and private information——hence the visceral response many consumers had to the veritable blizzard of telemarketing in this period Albert.
This affect associated with the telephone number only intensified as mobile phones grew in popularity during the s. Before long, these issues raised by the change in telephone directories with competition and new technology were eclipsed by the full-blown development of the commercial Internet. More than anything it was the advent of the Web and associated search engines that fundamentally changed how telephone lists were made, and in turn, how profits were made from them. Not so the corporate arrangements that had evolved to compile, use, and profit from the directories.
Today, Sensis styles itself as an innovator in new online and mobile technologies. It takes pride in its century plus of information provision via directories, believing still that this incumbency offers a firm basis to compete with search providers such as Google or locative media companies. To this end, Sensis and Telstra have vigorously sought to fight any competitors making use of the White and Yellow pages. The first significant occasion where these matters were considered in Australian courts was the case Telstra v Desktop Marketing.
It must be remembered that copyright is not claimed for each particular entry, because copyright does not subsist in each individual recorded fact. It is claimed in the whole of the collected data, ordered in a particular way. Telstra v Desktop On appeal, the Full Bench of the Federal Court unanimously, though in separate judgments, upheld the decision Desktop v Telstra , and the High Court later refused special leave to appeal.
This outcome raised queries about the application of the law see discussion in Ice TV. It also highlighted serious policy concerns, leading commentators to question whether copyright was the best way to protect databases:. The major difficulty with the decision is that it will be unlawful to innovate on top of or, by using the Telstra database, to create a new improved yet similar database. Extracting facts from all the books in the world is allowable if my book is differently expressed, but extracting facts from all of the Telstra databases to innovate on top of them in a similar yet standard alphabetised way is not allowable for life of the author plus 50 years […] It seems once again that we are threatening to stymie the innovations of digital technology by adopting the approaches of a bygone era.
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Fitzgerald and Barlett By the end of the decade, however, the Australian courts were taking a different direction on telephone directory databases——in Telstra v Phone Directories The initial judgment usefully described how the list of subscribers is now created:. Telstra collects and maintains information in relation to the names and addresses of its subscribers. Each WPD and YPD lists the names, addresses, telephone numbers and other information in relation to residential or business customers for a particular geographic area.
In the case of the WPD, the entries are free, but revenue is earned by persuading customers to add enhancements to their free entries for a fee. In the case of the YPD, revenue is earned in the same way and by taking advertisements for customers under multiple headings. Telstra v Phone Directories.
Despite these complex processes, the appellate judges citing Feist , felt strongly that:. In response, the corporation signalled that it would advocate an extension of copyright law to afford protection to databases. There have been companies that have been copying our books for a long time.
It has taken a long time to get through the legal process […]. It is really, I think, a matter of principle and public policy as to whether that form of copyright is appropriate and whether copyright law needs to be modernised to take account of modern technology and the way things are created these days.
Akhurst quoted in Kitney.objectifcoaching.com/components/warrick/site-de-rencontre-proprietaire-chien.php
Order or Cancel Your White or Yellow Pages Delivery in Australia - Directory Select
In the present day, the telephone directory does not play the same role in society as it used to do. In the face of the growing trend to obtain all sorts of information including telephone numbers, email, social media, and other addresses from Internet and mobile search, the future of directories has been seriously questioned Gettler Nonetheless, the telephone book remains widely distributed and valued.
In Australia, Telstra via its Sensis subsidiary still has an obligation under its licence condition to print and distribute a copy of the White Pages telephone directory to each household.
The Yellow Pages is deemed a commercial product, so not subject to the same distribution. In capital cities, the White Pages comprises two volumes.
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The business and government information volume is delivered by default, as more than 80 percent of searches in White Pages are for this information. Judged successful, this trial will be extended to Brisbane and Perth next. With environmental sustainability a high priority, Sensis receives strong encouragement from its customers to minimize or end its printed directories.
However, many other customers, especially in rural and regional areas, still very much value the telephone book information supplied by Damian Glass, Corporate Affairs, Sensis. While Telstra is still under an obligation to maintain the Integrated Public Number Database IPND , the future of this database and its policy framework is the subject of a Federal government review, initiated in and yet to report at the time of writing. The impetus for reform of the IPND and telephone directories generally has grown, with the shift from the public-switched telecommunications network to the new National Broadband Network, where voice telephony will be reconstructed in wholly data network architecture.
This policy reconsideration of the role of directories and the databases that now underlie them takes place in the midst of a deep transformation of how lists are created, what kind of media objects they create or entail, and how users interact with them. Telecommunications carriers are keeping a precarious grip on the heritage of the telephone directory, continuing to harvest the inheritance it bestows, and seeking to cover the return on investment necessary to renovate it for today.
So, if telephone directories can be considered as list media, their fate is subject to creative destruction, like much else of media in everyday life and culture now. My thanks to two anonymous reviewers of this paper for helpful comments.
Also to Damian Glass, Sensis, for his assistance. Albert, James A. Armstrong, Mark. Official Year Book of Australia. Canberra: ABS. Australian Government. Barker, Garry. Barr, Trevor.